SURGERY FOR ECTOPIC PREGNANCY / TUBAL PREGNANCY
What is Ectopic Pregnancy ?
This type of pregnancy is a medical condition that occurs when the fertilized egg attaches itself to an area outside the uterus. Most of the ectopic pregnancies usually occur in the fallopian tubes and are sometimes called tubal pregnancies. The fallopian tubes are not designed to hold a growing embryo and due to this fact, the fertilized egg in a tubal pregnancy cannot develop properly and must be treated.
Causes Of Ectopic Pregnancy
Ectopic Pregnancy is usually caused due to the following:
- When the fallopian tunes are inflames or scarred either from a previous medical condition, infection or surgery.
- Hormonal factors
- Genetic abnormalities
- Birth defects
- Shape and condition of the fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs can be affected by some medical conditions.
Ectopic Pregnancy Symptoms and Signs
Mothers with ectopic pregnancy usually show the following signs and symptoms :
- The abdomen, pelvis, shoulders or the neck can experience sharp pain in waves
- Sharp waves of pain in the abdomen, pelvis, shoulder, or neck
- One side of the abdomen can experience severe pain
- Presence of light to heavy vaginal spotting or bleeding
- Dizziness or fainting
- Rectal pressure
Who are at risk for having an ectopic pregnancy ?
Ectopic Pregnancy usually occurs in pregnant mothers with one of the following risk factors:
- Maternal age of 35-44 years
- Previous pelvic or abdominal surgery
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
- Several induced abortions
- Undergoing fertility treatments or are using fertility medications
The doctor might prescribe the medication methotrexate if the ectopic pregnancy was detected early and there is no unstable bleeding. This medication is usually given as an injection.
If this methotrexate therapy doesn’t work, surgery is the next available solution. Surgery is also the only option for women with:
- High HCG levels,
- Severe symptoms,
- Ruptured or damaged fallopian tubes.
The doctor will perform the laparoscopic surgery by creating tiny incisions and it inserting a tiny camera, and tiny surgical instruments through the incisions. This procedure will not cause damage to the fallopian tube.
In cases where the surgeon sees a ruptured or severely damaged tube and there is severe bleeding. The surgeon will recommend emergency surgery with bigger incisions. In these rare situations, the surgeons might have to remove the patient’s fallopian tube.
After surgery, the doctors will watch the patient’s HCG levels to make sure they’re going down and the pregnancy was removed properly. Some women also need a methotrexate injection so everything returns to normal.
Patients are advised to follow the below measures after the procedure:
- Restricted activity for 5 days, then normal daily routine.
- Do not lift more than 15 kg.
- Prevent constipation by drinking lots of fluids.
- Give rest to the pelvis by refraining from activities like sexual intercourse, use of tampons and douching.
- Patient needs to rest as much as possible during the first week after the surgery and can start doing activities in the following weeks, only as much as can be tolerated.