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Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP), also known as induced abortion, is the procedure performed for the premature termination of pregnancy. It is both intentional and artificial; MTP destroys the embryo or fetus before it is capable of living outside the womb.
MTP procedure is usually performed for the following reasons:
Unwanted pregnancy due to rape
Health/Mental condition of the mother
To complete an early miscarriage
Medical Termination of Pregnancy is induced by pharmaceutical drugs, which terminate the pregnancy. There is a wide range of medicines used some of the most common ones are Misoprostol, Cytotec, Mifepristone, Oxytocin, Pitocin, Hemabate, Mifeprex etc.
Some of the following conditions need to be met before attempting MTP:
MTP is only effective in the first trimester of pregnancy that is until the 9th week.
MTP is strictly not advised for an individual with medical conditions such as bleeding disorder, heart and blood vessel diseases, severe kidney, liver or lung diseases or an uncontrollable seizure disorder.
It should be made sure the patient does not have any allergic reactions to the prescribed drugs.
Women with an intrauterine device (IUD) should not opt for MTP.
An ultrasound exam is necessary to determine whether the fetus is inside the uterus for MTP to work.
As most clinical methods have risks, most drugs have side effects and allergic reactions. Some of them include,
Severe and prolonged bleeding
Incomplete abortion, in this case, surgical methods are to be used to complete the abortion procedure
Digestive system discomfort
It is strongly suggested that the patient may take time to think it over because if the patient later decides to continue with the pregnancy after taking the MTP drugs, they may have to go through major complications. Hence it is advised to be certain before beginning a medical abortion. Future pregnancies are not affected by MTP unless there are complications.
Usually, for medical abortion, two types of medicines are administered together for effective miscarriages. Mifepristone is to be taken first, then after 24-48 hours depending on the pregnancy, a medicine called misoprostol is to be taken orally or to be dissolved in the vagina as per the doctor’s instructions. This depends on the stage of pregnancy.
In some time, the patient will experience stomach cramps as well as vaginal bleeding. This would result in the termination of the pregnancy. If in case the bleeding does not start, then the doctor might for more doses of misoprostol.
It is normal to undergo abdominal cramps right after the abortion.
Vaginal bleeding may continue for a week or so.
Refrain from using tampons and sexual intercourse to avoid the risk of an infection.
Becoming pregnant right after an abortion is possible so it is advised to take the necessary contraceptive precautions.
It is common to have depression right after MTP, however, talking to your doctor or a counselor is recommended.
The patient is advised to take proper rest, do not attempt heavy lifting and eat nutritious food as they may have lost excess of blood while going through MTP.