Ovarian Cyst Treatment
What are Ovarian Cysts ?
When a woman undergoes her menstrual cycle, an egg will start growing in the sac called follicle, which is located inside the ovaries. In normal cases, this follicle breaks open, releasing the egg. When this follicle doesn't break open, the fluid inside the follicle will form a cyst on the ovary.
Most ovarian cysts are small and usually doesn’t cause any issues. The patient might feel symptoms like:
- A sharp or a dull pain in the lower abdomen beside the cyst. It can come and go.
If the patient experiences the following with the cyst, emergency medical attention is required:
- Sudden, severe belly pain
- Pain with fever and throwing up
- Dizziness, weakness, feeling faint
- Fast breathing
- A high or persistent fever.
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Heavy bleeding.
- Swelling or pain in pelvis or abdomen.
- Dark or bad-smelling vaginal discharge
Types of cysts
The ovarian cysts are of mainly two types: Functional and Complex Ovarian Cysts.
- Functional Ovarian Cysts
- Follicular Cyst :
An egg cell bursts out of the follicle and travels through the fallopian tube looking for a sperm to get fertilized, during the menstrual cycle. If this follicle doesn’t burst and release the cell, it forms a cyst.
- Corpus luteum cyst :
When the egg cell is released from the follicle, it will produce large quantities of estrogen and progestron for conception. The follicle in this stage is called the corpus luteum. In some cases, the opening of the egg cell is closed off and fluid starts to build up within the corpus luteum. This leads to the expansion and development of this type of ovarian cyst.
- Complex Ovarian Cysts
- Dermoid ovarian cysts or cystic teratomas :
Cysts can cause the ovary to twist and imperil its blood supply. The risk of its rupture is increased as the dermoid cyst increases. This will lead to spilling of the greasy contents that can create problems with adhesions, with pain.
- Cystadenomas :
Cystadenomas are benign cysts formed from cells that covers the ovary’s outer parts and are usually filled with thick mucus. They can grow to large sizes and can measure around 12 inches or more in diameter. They are rarely canerous in nature but they need to be removed surgically.
- Endometriomas :
The presence of endometrial tissue (the uterus' tissue lining) in the ovaries can signal the development of endometriomas. It is actually the symptom of the medical condition, endometriosis, in which the endometrial glands and tissue are present outside the uterus.
Ovarian Cyst Surgeries
The surgeons might opt for the following two medical procedures for ovarian cyst treatment.
- Laparoscopy or keyhole surgery :
It is one of the ovarian cyst surgeries in which surgeon first makes two small cuts in the lower abdomen, and another one in the belly button. Then, some gas is inserted through these incisions to raise the abdominal wall away from the internal organs. The surgeon will then insert the laparascope, a thin flexible tube with a camera at one end, into the abdomen allowing the surgeons to view the internal organs.
The surgeon will then use small, specalised surgical instrumetns to remove the cyst through the tiny incisions. A sample of the cyst might be taken for biopsy to determine its type.
- Laparotomy :
The surgeon usually recommends Laparotomy for patients with cancerous ovarian cysts. The surgeon will first make one large cut across the top of the pubic hairline. This will allow the surgeon with better access to the cyst. After its removal, the cyst will be sent for examination to the laboratory.
After the ovarian cyst is removed, the patient might feel pain in the stomach. This will improve within a day or two. Patient’s who underwent laparoscopy usually takes 2 weeks to recover, while those who underwent laparatomy need around 6-8 weeks.
Authored By Dr. Sunil Eshwar
Medical disclaimer: For information purposes only