There may be various reasons why a couple face difficulty in conceiving. Both the partners are investigated thoroughly to identify the cause. Lets focus on the investigations that are conducted in the male. There are so many Male Infertility Tests.
MEDICAL HISTORY AND EXAMINATION :
Before ordering an array of investigations, the first thing we do is to take a thorough history from the patient. In the medical history we look for any history of accidents, infections, treatment with drugs, which can adversely affect fertility, any history of chemotherapy or radiation etc. Taking a thorough history and doing a complete physical examination of the patient helps in streamlining the investigations.
SEMEN ANALYSIS :
In Semen Analysis, Semen sample from the male partner is analysed in a specialized laboratory to check for adequate sperm count, motility, viability, and a host of other tests. This test may be repeated several times to get an accurate assessment.
SCROTAL ULTRASOUND :
This is a non-invasive test, where an ultrasound probe is used to identify any structural problems in the male genital tract. Conditions causing infertility, which can be identified via ultrasound, include varicocoele, hydroceles, epididymal cysts, undescended testes, orchitis, epididymitis etc.
POSTEJACULATION URINE ANALYSIS :
Sometimes the sperms, travel backwards into the bladder instead of coming out with the semen. This leads to very low sperm count and may be one of the reasons why a couple find it difficult to conceive, despite having a normal sex life. This condition, also known as retrograde ejaculation can be diagnosed by analysing a urine sample post ejaculation. Presence of sperms in the urine confirms this condition.
HORMONE TESTING :
Hormones produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary and the testicular glands, play an important role in the development of secondary sexual characteristics and also sperm development and maturation. Any abnormalities or imbalance in the level of these hormones can cause suboptimal fertility. Hormone testing is done by a blood test.
GENETIC TESTS :
Certain genetic conditions can lead to infertility. Most common of these are chromosomal conditions such as klinefelters syndrome, downs syndrome or subtle changes in the Y chromosome
TESTICULAR BIOPSY :
An invasive test where a needle is inserted into the testes to obtain a small sample of testicular tissue, which is then sent for analysis. This test is not performed very often.
SPECIALIZED SPERM FUNCTION TESTS
These are a series of tests that are done to determine how well the sperm functions after ejaculation.
Authored By Dr. Sunil Eshwar Medical disclaimer: For information purposes only